Increased HIV-1 Activity in Anal High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Compared With Unaffected Anal Mucosa in Men Who Have Sex With Men

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We studied 3 patients with focal intra-anal tissue high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). All had increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and DNA in lesions compared with that in healthy mucosa. HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 episomal DNA were indicative of ongoing viral replication, more so in anal HSILs.

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