There is a clear convergence toward an overarching strategic use of antiretroviral drugs to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Four interventions—immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the infected partner in a serodiscordant couple, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP)—are all strongly recommended by the World Health Organization as effective ways to prevent HIV infection. For HIV-infected individuals, ART to protect an HIV-uninfected partner and PMTCT are both part of an expanding list of recommendations for starting ART immediately to both treat and prevent HIV infection. For HIV-uninfected individuals, PrEP and PEP are increasingly being seen as related interventions, and there are compelling reasons to consider the provision of PEP as a potential gateway to PrEP. The effectiveness of each of these interventions depends on overcoming barriers to seeking services, adequate community understanding and engagement, high levels of access and uptake of services including HIV testing and counselling, and high levels of adherence.