Rates of Community-based Antibiotic Prescriptions and Hospital-treated Infections in Individuals With and Without Type 2 Diabetes: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study, 2004–2012

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Abstract

Background. The excess risk of antibiotic use and hospital-treated infections in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with general population is poorly understood.

Methods. In a nationwide cohort of patients with incident T2D (n = 155 158) and an age-, gender-, and residence-matched comparison cohort (n = 774 017), we used Cox regression to compute rates and confounder-adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) of community-based antibiotic prescription redemption and hospital-treated infections during 2004–2012.

Results. The rates of community-based antibiotic prescriptions in the T2D and comparison cohorts were 364 vs 275 per 1000 person-years after a median follow-up of 1.1 years (aRR = 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 1.25). The corresponding rates for hospital-treated infection were 58 vs 39 per 1000 person-years after a median follow-up of 2.8 years (aRR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.47 to 1.52). The aRRs were increased particularly for urinary tract infections (UTIs, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.45), skin infections (1.50; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.55), septicemia (1.60; 95% CI, 1.53 to 1.67), and tuberculosis (1.61; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.06) and of community-based antibiotics prescribed for UTIs (1.31; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.33), Staphylococcus aureus infections (1.32; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.34), and mycobacterial infections (1.69; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.09). The 1-year aRR declined from 1.89 (95% CI, 1.75 to 2.04) in 2004 to 1.59 (95% CI, 1.45 to 1.74) in 2011 for hospital-treated infection (trend P = .007) and from 1.31 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.36) in 2004 to 1.26 (95% CI, 1.22 to 1.30) in 2011 for community-based antibiotic prescriptions (trend P = .006).

Conclusions. Patients with T2D have rates of community-based antibiotic prescriptions and hospital-treated infections that are higher than for the general population.

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