Background. Although newer studies have evaluated risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the vast majority did not measure important biomarkers such as endogenous anti–toxin A and anti–toxin B antibody levels.
Methods. Data from the placebo group of a phase 2 trial testing monoclonal antibodies to C. difficile toxins A and B for preventing CDI recurrence (rCDI) were analyzed to assess risk factors associated with rCDI. Patients with symptomatic CDI taking metronidazole or vancomycin were enrolled. The primary outcome was rCDI within 84 days of treatment start. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between potential risk factors and rCDI. At baseline, demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded; endogenous antibody levels were assessed using 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
Results. A predictor of recurrence was age ≥65 years, and an antibody-mediated immune response to toxin B appears to be protective against rCDI.
Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate the importance of clinical as well as immunological risk factors in rCDI and provide more robust evidence for the protective effects of antibody to toxin B in the prevention of rCDI.
Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00350298.