Serum levels of cancer biomarkers in diabetic and non-diabetic proteinuric patients: a preliminary study

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Background:Cancer biomarkers (CBs) can be used in early detection of several cancers as well as in detection of recurrence and following response to treatment. We aimed to investigate the levels of CBs in proteinuric patients with primary glomerular disease (PGD) and diabetes mellitus, and compare them with healthy controls.Methods:One hundred and two patients with untreated PGD, 62 proteinuric patients with diabetic nephropathy, and 84 healthy controls were enrolled. Levels of cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), carcinoembriogenic antigen (CEA), α-fetoprotein (AFP), total prostate specific antigen (TPSA), free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) were measured.Results:Compared to healthy controls, levels of CA 125, CA 15-3 and CA 19-9 were higher in patients with PGD and diabetic patients (all p<0.05), while levels of TPSA, FPSA, AFP and CEA were lower (all p<0.05). There was no correlation between levels of cancer biomarkers and serum fibrinogen and serum amyloid A protein levels (all p>0.05). Both urinary protein excretion rate and serum albumin levels were correlated with all CBs (all p<0.05).Conclusions:CBs levels seem to be changed in different proteinuric patients. This condition should be kept in mind when evaluating CBs levels in proteinuric patients.

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