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Eotaxin-2 is a potent chemoattractant for eosinophils, basophils and T helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes. The eotaxin-2/CCL24 receptor CCR3 is expressed in human brain, skin, endothelium and macrophages. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective effect of a monoclonal anti-eotaxin-2 antibody on the development of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats (AIA). Adjuvant arthritis was induced in Lewis rats by intradermal injection of incomplete Freund's adjuvant + Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rats were treated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with three monoclonal antibodies against eotaxin-2 (G7, G8, D8) three times per week. Controls were treated with total mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG), methotrexate (MTX) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Arthritis severity was evaluated by measuring ankle swelling, arthritic score, whole animal mobility and body weight. Sample joints were obtained for pathological evaluation and postmortem X-ray of ankle joints was performed to document erosions. Significant inhibition of arthritis was observed in rats treated with anti-eotaxin-2 antibodies compared to those treated with immunoglobulin or PBS. Inhibition was manifest in ankle diameter, arthritic score and mobility score. The antibody marked D8 showed the greatest efficacy. The effect was observed both in animals treated before the appearance of arthritis and in those where treatment was begun after development of joint inflammation. Combined treatment with D8 and MTX caused additional protection. Significant reduction of inflammation in D8-treated animals was also demonstrated in pathological and X-ray examinations. Inhibition of eotaxin-2 by monoclonal antibodies has a significant protective effect in adjuvant arthritis. These results may introduce a novel therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis and additional inflammatory joint disorders.