Lenalidomide enhancement of human T cell functions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-negative CD4 T lymphocytopenic patients


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Abstract

SummarySuppressed T cell functions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were identified and corrected by lenalidomide in middle-aged HIV-infected patients. Chemotaxis of T cells from HIV-infected men (n = 6, mean 43 years) to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and CCL21 was significantly lower than that of HIV-negative men (n = 6, mean 41 years), and was enhanced significantly up to control levels by 100 and 1000 nM lenalidomide. Generation of interleukin (IL)-2, but not interferon (IFN)-γ, by T cells of middle-aged HIV-infected men was significantly lower than that for controls and was increased significantly by 10–1000 nM lenalidomide up to a maximum of more than 300%. CD4 and CD8 T cells isolated from healthy middle-aged men and reconstituted in vitro at a low CD4:CD8 ratio typical of HIV infection had depressed chemotaxis to S1P, but not CCL21, and generation of IL-2, but not IFN-γ. Significant enhancement of chemotaxis to S1P and CCL21was induced by 100–1000 nM lenalidomide only for normal T cells at a low CD4:CD8 ratio. T cells from HIV-negative middle-aged CD4 T lymphocytopenic patients (n = 3), with a CD4:CD8 ratio as low as that of HIV-infected patients, had similarly diminished chemotaxis to S1P and CCL21, and depressed generation of IL-2, but not IFN-γ. Lenalidomide at 30–1000 nM significantly enhanced chemotaxis to S1P and IL-2 generation for T cells from HIV-negative CD4 T lymphocytopenic patients as from HIV-infected patients, with less effect on CCL21-elicited chemotaxis and none for IFN-γ generation. Defects in functions of T cells from middle-aged HIV-infected men are partially attributable to CD4 T lymphocytopenia and are corrected by lenalidomide.

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