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To evaluate the refractive outcomes in children treated with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).A retrospective study of 95 patients (186 eyes) was conducted. All patients received IVR treatment. The cycloplegic refraction was evaluated at three months, six months, 12 months and 24 months.The average spherical equivalent (SE) refraction value for patients with ROP who were treated with IVR as a monotherapy at the three, six, 12 and 24 months was +1.84 ± 2.11 D, +1.02 ± 2.41 D, +0.43 ± 2.23 D and +0.13 ± 2.73 D, respectively (p < 0.001). Myopia (SE < −0.25 D) was observed in 24 eyes (15.9 per cent) at the three-month follow-up, 33 eyes (21.8 per cent) at the six-month follow-up, 33 eyes (26.5 per cent) at the 12-month follow-up and 34 eyes (37.5 per cent) at the 24-month follow-up, respectively (p < 0.05). The percentage of eyes with high myopia (SE < −5.0 D) was 0.6 per cent, 1.4 per cent, 1.7 per cent and 3.4 per cent at the three-month, six-month, 12-month and 24-month follow-up visits in the IVR group. There were 59 eyes that received repeated IVR injections at the follow-ups. The average SE of patients receiving repeated injections at the three-, six-, 12- and 24-month visits was +1.53 ± 2.03 D, +1.25 ± 1.95 D, +0.58 ± 2.24 D and −0.17 ± 3.22 D, respectively (p = 0.04).Our large sample study found that 37.5 per cent and 3.4 per cent of patients treated with IVR developed myopia and high myopia respectively, at the 24-month follow-up. Furthermore, the mean SE decreased, and the trend of myopia increased, in the IVR group at the follow-ups. Repeated injections might promote myopia in ROP patients. The refractive status needs to be monitored in patients treated with ranibizumab.