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1. Cardiac troponin I-interacting kinase (TNNI3K) is a novel cardiac-specific kinase gene. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed a significant increase in TNNI3K mRNA expression in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of TNNI3K on neonate rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by ET-1.2. Adenoviruses were amplified in 293A cells. To determine a reasonable adenovirus infection dose cardiomyocytes were infected with an adenovirus carrying human TNNI3K (Ad-TNNI3K) at varying multiplicity of infection (MOI) and the expression of TNNI3K was analysed by western blot.3. Cardiomyocytes were infected with either a control adenovirus carrying green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) or Ad-TNNI3K. Compared with Ad-GFP, the Ad-TNNI3K induced an increase in sarcomere organization, cell surface area, 3H-leucine incorporation and β-MHC re-expression. This type of hypertrophic phenomenon is similar to that observed in Ad-GFP-infected hypertrophic cardiomyocytes induced by ET-1. To determine the functional role of TNNI3K in ET-1-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, the cells were infected with Ad-GFP or Ad-TNNI3K. Ad-TNNI3K induced an increase in sarcomere organization, cell surface area and 3H-leucine incorporation compared with Ad-GFP.4. These results suggest that TNNI3K overexpression induces cardiomyocytes hypertrophy and accelerates hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Therefore, TNNI3K might be an interesting target for the clinical treatment of hypertrophy.