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The long-acting somatostatin (SMS) analog, SMS 201–995 has beneficial effects on APUDomas. In two Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) patients we assessed basal acid output (BAO) and 24-h pH under SMS and compared them to controls. We also assessed total gastrin, gastrin 17, insulin, glucagon, C-peptide, and SMS by radioimmunoassay. In the benign gastrinoma, an acid-controlling action of SMS was shown, elevating the 24-h pH threshold over the pH range 1.5–5 of 55–10% compared with control. A parallel inhibition of the gastrins >90% was apparent. We found no beneficial effect on gastric acid secretion and on tumor gastrin in the malignant gastrinoma despite a fourfold higher plasma SMS level. Non-tumor-related peptides were suppressed by approximately 50% and in contrast to gastrin they again reached pre-SMS levels before the next dose of the drug. We conclude that SMS is more effective in benign than in malignant gastrinomas, and may be exclusively so.