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We assessed the prevalence of Campylobacter pylori in various forms of endoscopic gastritis, including ulcer and nonulcer dyspepsia and bile gastritis and correlated it with histological evidence of inflammation. Multiple biopsy specimens were taken from 120 patients, including four normal controls, who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for evaluation of upper abdominal pain and discomfort, nausea, bilious vomiting, weight loss, and anemia. The patients included 58 men and 62 women, with a mean age of 53 years. Of these, 16 patients had gastric ulcers, 19 had duodenal ulcers, 26 had reflux gastritis (after either gastric surgery or cholecystectomy), one had a gastric polyp, one had Barrett's esophagus, and the remaining 53 had gastritis due to unspecified causes. Campylobacter-like organisms were demonstrated by light and electron microscopy in 50 of 69 patients of the nonbile gastritis group (72%) and in seven of 15 patients of the bile gastritis group (47%) (p 0.05). The presence of bacteria in both groups correlated with histologically significant inflammation (particularly chronic active gastritis); similar histologic changes were noted in both major groups of nonbile gastritis and bile gastritis. Campylobacter pylori is common in all forms of gastritis in association with histologic inflammation.