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The factors that whether and how genes involving lipid metabolism including lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and apolipoprotein CII (apo CII) influence occurrence of acute attack of pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis is not clear.The aim of this study was to determine the association of LPL and apo CII genes with acute attack of pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis in patients with hyperlipidemic pancreatitis (HLP) and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG).We performed genetic analysis of 134 patients in Taiwan with HTG (53 with HLP and 81 without HLP). The entire coding and intronic regions of the LPL and apo CII genes were identified with heteroduplex analytical techniques or high resolution melting analysis. All mutations were confirmed by sequencing analysis. Correlation of phenotype and genotype was also analyzed.The frequency of LPL gene mutation rates in HLP patients (17.0%, 9 of 53) was significantly higher than that without HLP attack (4.9%, 4 of 81) (P<0.0001). A total of 10.4% (14 of 134) of our HTG patients carried LPL or apo CII mutation. The most common LPL gene mutation was S447X. There is a high prevalence (77.8%) of HLP attack in HTG patients carrying S447X mutation. Multivariate analysis in HLP patients indicated that the presence of LPL mutation and episode of acute attack were independent risks for pancreatic calcification and steatorrhea.This is the first complete genetic study analyzing the association of LPL and apo CII mutation in a HLP population. LPL S447X mutation is associated with a higher risk of pancreatic calcification and steatorrhea than those previously known factors in HLP patients.