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To evaluate the durability of the response to rifaximin for treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE).The nonsystemic antibiotic rifaximin has been approved for maintenance of HE remission, and several studies have indicated the efficacy of rifaximin for acute HE; however, the duration of therapeutic response for >6 months remains unknown.Medical records of patients with cirrhosis who received rifaximin maintenance therapy for HE between January 2004 and May 2009 were reviewed. Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were obtained every 3 months during therapy.Of 203 patients with HE (Conn score ≥2), 149 received rifaximin monotherapy (400 to 1600 mg/d) and 54 received rifaximin (600 to 1200 mg/d) and lactulose (90 mL/d) dual therapy. Maintenance of HE remission for 1 year occurred in 81% and 67% of patients who received rifaximin monotherapy and rifaximin and lactulose dual therapy, respectively. Patient populations with a baseline mean MELD score ≤20 had few overt HE events, suggesting increased response to rifaximin in these patients.Rifaximin is effective for the management of HE in patients with cirrhosis, particularly in populations with MELD scores ≤20. Additional studies are needed to investigate the potential association between MELD scores and the efficacy of HE treatments.