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To compare the efficacy and tolerability of morning-only polyethylene glycol (PEG) with split-dose preparation in hospitalized patients scheduled for colonoscopy.Morning-only colonoscopy preparation may improve efficiency by allowing patient preparation and colonoscopy to be performed on the same day. There are limited data comparing morning-only with split-dose preparation, and more studies are needed before morning-only preparation can be routinely recommended.A single-center, prospective, endoscopist-blinded study was conducted, in which hospitalized patients scheduled to undergo diagnostic colonoscopy were randomly assigned to receive 4 L of PEG either on the morning of colonoscopy or as a split-dose (evening-morning). The primary endpoint was efficacy of bowel preparation measured by the Ottawa scale. Secondary endpoints were patient compliance and tolerance.A total of 120 hospitalized patients scheduled for diagnostic colonoscopy were randomized. The mean total Ottawa score was slightly superior for the morning-only arm, and the upper bound of 95% confidence interval (CI) for difference between arms was less than our prespecified noninferiority margin of 1.5 (difference=−0.23; 95% CI, −1.72 to 1.25). The percentage of patients with good bowel preparation was similar for all colonic segments. There was a trend toward more side effects among patients in the morning-only compared with the split-dose arm (71% vs. 54%; P=0.08). Compared with morning-only preparation, more patients in the split-dose arm were willing to undergo similar preparation for future colonoscopies (71% vs. 89%; P=0.02).Morning-only PEG is not inferior to split-dose preparation regarding bowel cleansing efficacy for colonoscopy in hospitalized patients. However, split-dose preparation was preferred by patients because of less side effects.