Early Readmission Predicts Increased Mortality in Cirrhosis Patients After Clostridium difficile Infection

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Goals:We sought to determine the impact of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in cirrhosis by evaluating trends and outcomes of early readmission and mortality.Background:The incidence of CDI in cirrhotics is increasing.Study:We analyzed the Nationwide Readmissions Database (2011 to 2014) for hospitalized patients with CDI and differentiated them by presence of cirrhosis. Baseline characteristics, surgical rates, and outcomes were collected. The primary outcomes of interest included readmission and mortality rates.Results:Of 366,283 patients hospitalized with CDI, 12,274 (3.4%) had cirrhosis, of which 7741 (63.1%) were decompensated. Among patients with CDI, 30-day readmission rates (33% vs. 24%), index admission mortality (5% vs. 2.5%), and calendar-year mortality (9% vs. 4%) were higher in patients with cirrhosis compared with those without cirrhosis. Recurrent CDI (rCDI) (46%) and cirrhosis-related complications (34.6%) were the most common reasons for readmission. Patients with decompensated cirrhosis were more likely to be readmitted within 30-days than those with compensated cirrhosis [odds ratio (OR), 1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.36]. Multivariable analyses revealed that among patients with cirrhosis, index colectomy (OR, 6.50; 95% CI, 1.61-26.24) and decompensation (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 2.49-5.23) predicted index admission mortality. In addition, 30-day readmission (OR, 3.71; 95% CI, 2.95-4.67) and decompensated cirrhosis (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.17-1.89) independently predicted calendar-year mortality.Conclusions:One-third of CDI patients with cirrhosis were readmitted within 30-days, most commonly because of rCDI. The mortality associated with CDI in patients with cirrhosis is high, with decompensation and 30-day readmission heralding a poor prognosis. Reducing rCDI-related readmissions may potentially improve these outcomes.

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