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Bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, particularly women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a history of bacterial infections among 1,310 women with or at risk for HIV infection. HIV-seropositive women were significantly more likely than seronegative women to report recent and lifetime histories of bacterial infection, even after history of injection drug use since 1977 was adjusted for; this included recent pneumonia (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-6.6), sinusitis (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.0), and urinary tract infection (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1). Compared with HIV-negative women, women with CD4 cell counts of <200 were about eight times more likely to report recent pneumonia (OR, 7.8; 95% CI, 3.4-17.7); those with CD4 cell counts of 200-500 were almost three times more likely to do so (OR, 2.6; CI, 1.2-5.7). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only CD4 cell category and a recent history of smoking had a significant relationship to self-reported pneumonia.