Survey of Bloodstream Infections Due to Gram-Negative Bacilli: Frequency of Occurrence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Isolates Collected in the United States, Canada, and Latin America for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997

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During 1997, a total of 4,267 nosocomial and community-acquired bloodstream infections due to gram-negative organisms were reported from SENTRY hospitals in Canada (8 sites), the United States (30 sites), and Latin America (10 sites). Escherichia coli was the most common isolate (41% of all gram-negative isolates), followed by Klebsiella species (17.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.6%), and Enterobacter species (9.4%). For all gram-negative isolates combined, the most active antimicrobials tested were meropenem, imipenem, and cefepime. The quinolones levofloxacin (MIC,90, 2 μg/mL), ciprofloxacin (MIC90, 1 μg/mL), gatifloxacin (MIC90, 2 μg/mL), sparfloxacin (MIC90, 2 μg/mL), and trovafloxacin (MIC90, 2 μg/mL) were also active against most isolates. Bloodstream infection isolates from Latin America were uniformly more resistant to all classes of antimicrobial agents tested than were isolates from Canada or the United States. Resistance phenotypes consistent with extended-spectrum β-lactamase production were also most common among E. coli and Klebsiella species from Latin America. Further investigation of the reasons for regional differences in resistance patterns is needed, as is ongoing surveillance to detect resistance trends and to guide antimicrobial use.

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