Visceral Leishmaniasis in Costa Rica: First Case Report

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We describe a 15-month-old eutrophic immunocompetent male who presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Leishmania amastigotes were identified in spleen and bone marrow specimens. In addition, tissue culture, animal inoculation, and isoenzyme analysis identified the parasite as Leishmania donovani infantum or Leishmania donovani chagasi. The infant was successfully treated with an antimonial drug. These findings represent the first case of visceral leishmaniasis reported in Costa Rica.

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