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Limited data are available on clinical outcomes of meningitis due to cefotaxime-nonsusceptibleStreptococcus pneumoniae. We analyzed data from 109 cases of pneumococcal meningitis in Atlanta, Baltimore, and San Antonio, which were identified through population-based active surveillance from November 1994 to April 1996. Pneumococcal isolates from 9% of the cases were resistant to cefotaxime, and isolates from 11% had intermediate susceptibility. Children were more likely to have cephalosporin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal meningitis, but mortality was significantly higher among adults aged 18-64 years. Vancomycin was given upon admission to 29% of patients, and within 48 h of admission to 52%. Nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime was not associated with the following outcomes: increased mortality, prolonged length of hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) stay, requirement of intubation or oxygen, ICU care, discharge to another medical or long-term-care facility, or neurological deficit. Empirical use of vancomycin, current prevalence of drug-resistantS. pneumoniae, and degree of nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime may have influenced these findings.