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Risk factors for the nosocomial recovery of imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA) were determined. A case-control study design was used for the comparison of 2 groups of case patients with control patients. The first group of case patients had nosocomial isolation of IRPA, and the second group had imipenem-susceptible P. aeruginosa (ISPA). Control patients were selected from the same medical or surgical services from which case patients were receiving care when isolation of IRPA occurred. Risk factors analyzed included antimicrobials used, comorbid conditions, and demographic variables. IRPA was recovered from 120 patients, and ISPA from 662 patients. Imipenem (odds ratio [OR], 4.96), piperacillin-tazobactam (OR, 2.39), vancomycin (OR, 1.80), and aminoglycosides (OR, 2.19) were associated with isolation of IRPA. Vancomycin (OR, 1.64), ampicillin-sulbactam (OR, 2.00), and second-generation cephalosporins (OR, 2.00) were associated with isolation of ISPA. Antibiotics associated with ISPA are different from antibiotics associated with IRPA. The OR for imipenem as a risk factor for IRPA is less than that reported from studies in which control group selection was suboptimal.