A Randomized and Blinded Multicenter Trial of High-Dose Fluconazole plus Placebo versus Fluconazole plus Amphotericin B as Therapy for Candidemia and Its Consequences in Nonneutropenic Subjects

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A randomized, blinded, multicenter trial was conducted to compare fluconazole (800 mg per day) plus placebo with fluconazole plus amphotericin B (AmB) deoxycholate (0.7 mg/kg per day, with the placebo/AmB component given only for the first 5–6 days) as therapy for candidemia due to species other than Candida krusei in adults without neutropenia. A total of 219 patients met criteria for a modified intent-to-treat analysis. The groups were similar except that those who were treated with fluconazole plus placebo had a higher mean (± standard error) Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (16.8 ± 0.6 vs. 15.0 ± 0.7; P = .039). Success rates on study day 30 by Kaplan-Meier time-to-failure analysis were 57% for fluconazole plus placebo and 69% for fluconazole plus AmB (P = .08). Overall success rates were 56% (60 of 107 patients) and 69% (77 of 112 patients; P = .043), respectively; the bloodstream infection failed to clear in 17% and 6% of subjects, respectively (P = .02). In nonneutropenic subjects, the combination of fluconazole plus AmB was not antagonistic compared with fluconazole alone, and the combination trended toward improved success and more-rapid clearance from the bloodstream.

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