American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Lepromatous Leprosy, and Pulmonary Tuberculosis Coinfection with Downregulation of the T-helper 1 Cell Response

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Cutaneous leishmaniasis, leprosy, and tuberculosis are caused by intracellular pathogens whose development depends on impaired cell-mediated immunity. We report an exceptional triple association of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, lepromatous leprosy, and pulmonary tuberculosis in a man with no recognized immunodeficiency. Normal immunological assessment of the interferon-γ pathway does not support the hypothesis of a genetic defect in any of the genes involved in the T helper (Th)-1 cytokine cascade in this patient. Unresponsiveness to interleukin (IL)-12 of his T cells after stimulation with Leishmania guyanensis, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin, and Mycobacterium leprae antigens suggested the inability to mount an appropriate Th cell response to upregulate the IL-12 receptor expression.

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