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The relationship between drug exposure and the time course of antimicrobial effect at the primary infection site for acute maxillary sinusitis has not previously been explored. This single-center, open-label study quantified the time course of sinus sterilization, described gatifloxacin exposure at the infection site, and posed the hypothesis that the use of continuous and quantitative time-related end points may allow for better characterization of drug effect with fewer patients than traditional clinical trial approaches. Of the 12 enrolled patients, 10 were clinically evaluable, from whom 7 pathogens were isolated: 4 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2 staphylococci, and 1 Enterobacter aerogenes. The median predicted 24-h area under the curve (AUC) in sinus aspirates and plasma samples was 54.7 mg × h/L and 30.1 mg × h/L, respectively. The median 24-h AUC ratio for sinus aspirates and plasma samples was 1.51 (range, 0.88–2.23). For patients infected with pneumococci, the median time to sinus sterilization was 50 h. The use of quantitative time-related end points may be useful in evaluating the efficacy of antimicrobial agents with fewer patients.