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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is caused by JC virus, an opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. Antiretroviral treatment for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in human immunodeficiency virus—infected patients is beneficial, but few data exist for patients who are not infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia excludes human immunodeficiency virus infection. We describe a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with underlying idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia in whom functional recovery occurred without antiviral therapy.