Improved Growth and Anemia in HIV-Infected African Children Taking Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis

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The impact of cotrimoxazole (CTX) on growth and/or anemia was investigated in 541 human immunodeficiency virus-infected, antiretroviral therapy–naive Zambian children enrolled in the Children with HIV Antibiotic Prophylaxis trial. Compared with children randomized to receive placebo, children randomized to receive CTX had slower decreases in weight-for-age (P  =  .04) and height-for-age (P  =  .01), and greater increase in hemoglobin level (P  =  .01). These findings argue for expanded early CTX use.

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