Liposomal Amphotericin B for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Coinfected Patients: 2-Year Treatment Outcomes in Bihar, India

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Background. Reports on treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)–human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection in India are lacking. To our knowledge, none have studied the efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B in VL-HIV coinfection. We report the 2-year treatment outcomes of VL-HIV–coinfected patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B followed by combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) in Bihar, India.Methods. The study included all patients with newly diagnosed VL-HIV coinfection and initiating treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (20–25 mg/kg in 4–15 days) between July 2007 and September 2010. Kaplan–Meier estimates of the cumulative incidence of death/treatment failure were calculated.Results. Fifty-five patients were included (83.6% male; median age, 35 years; 62% migrant laborers; median follow-up, 1 year). The median CD4 cell count at VL diagnosis was 66 cells/μL (interquartile range, 38–112). Twenty-seven patients (49.1%) presented with VL relapse of VL. The overall tolerance of liposomal amphotericin B was excellent, with no interrupted treatment. Survival by 1 and 2 years after VL treatment was estimated at 85.5%. No patients had initial treatment failure. The probabilities of VL relapse were 0%, 8.1%, and 26.5% at 0.5, 1, and 2 years after VL treatment, respectively; relapse rates were similar for primary VL and VL relapse. CD4 counts <200 cells/μL at 6 months after cART initiation were predictive of subsequent relapse. The mean CD4 cell counts at 6 and 24 months after cART initiation were 187 and 261 cells/μL, respectively. The rate for retention in HIV care was 83.6%.Conclusions. Good long-term survival and retention rates were obtained for VL-HIV–coinfected patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B and cART. Although the initial VL treatment response was excellent, VL relapse within 2 years remained frequent.

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