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Invasive aspergillosis has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised children. It remains difficult to diagnose, and outcome depends on early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and restoration of host defenses. Pediatric patients represent a unique population in their clinical presentation and epidemiology, particularly in respect to the utility of newer diagnostic tools and the pharmacokinetics of antifungal agents. This article reviews the presentation and epidemiology of invasive aspergillosis in children and adolescents with acquired immunodeficiencies and discusses the value of current diagnostic tools and the options for treatment and prevention in this population.