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Background. Little is known about Listeria monocytogenes–associated bone and joint infections. Only case reports of this infection have been published.Methods. Retrospective study of culture-proven bone and joint cases reported to the French National Reference Center for Listeria from 1992 to 2010.Results. Forty-three patients were studied: 61% were men, and the median age was 72 (range, 16–89); 24 patients exhibited comorbidities (56%). Thirty-six patients (84%) had orthopedic implant devices: prosthetic joints (n = 34) or internal fixation (n = 2); the median time after insertion was 9 years (0.1–22). Subacute infection was more frequent (median, 4 weeks [range, 2–100], 74%) than acute infection (<7 days, 23%), with nonspecific clinical features; 45% of patients had no fever. Blood cultures were positive in 3 of 19 cases. Isolate polymerase chain reaction genogrouping revealed 4 patterns: IVb (21 of 42, 50%), IIa (17 of 42, 40%), IIb (2 of 42, 5%), and IIc (2 of 42, 5%). Five groups of strains with similar pulsotype patterns were identified without an epidemiological link. Antibiotics, primarily amoxicillin (80%) with aminoglycosides (48%), were prescribed for a median duration of 15 weeks (range, 2–88). Eighteen patients (50%) underwent prosthesis replacement; all were successful after median follow-up of 10 months (range, 1–75). Five of 13 patients for whom material was not removed had protracted infection despite prolonged antibiotherapy; 3 of these patients later underwent prosthesis replacement with sustained recovery.Conclusions. Osteoarticular listeriosis primarily involves prosthetic joints and occurs in immunocompromised patients. It requires intensive treatment with antibiotherapy and usually requires implant removal or replacement for cure.