Prediction of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in High-Risk Pregnant Women

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Background.This prospective study aimed to determine maternal clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound findings that effectively predict the occurrence of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (CCI) in high-risk pregnant women.Methods.Three hundred CMV immunoglobulin (Ig) M–positive pregnant women were enrolled. The maternal clinical and laboratory findings, including serum CMV IgM and IgG; IgG avidity index (AI); antigenemia assay (C7-HRP); polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of CMV-DNA in the maternal serum, urine, and uterine cervical secretion; and prenatal ultrasound findings, were evaluated. To determine predictive factors for the occurrence of CCI, logistic regression analyses were performed.Results.In 22 of the 300 women, CCI was confirmed using PCR for CMV-DNA in newborn urine. Univariate analyses demonstrated that the presence of maternal flu-like symptoms, presence of ultrasound fetal abnormalities, serum titers of CMV IgM, positive results for C7-HRP, CMV IgG AI <40%, and positive PCR results in the uterine cervical secretion were statistically associated with the occurrence of CCI. Multivariable analysis revealed that the presence of ultrasound fetal abnormalities (odds ratio [OR], 31.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.5–120.3; P < .001) and positive PCR results in the uterine cervical secretion (OR, 16.4; 95% CI, 5.0–54.1; P < .001) were independent predictive factors of CCI in CMV IgM-positive women.Conclusions.This is the first prospective cohort study to suggest that the presence of CMV-DNA in the maternal uterine cervical secretion and ultrasound fetal abnormalities are predictive of the occurrence of congenital CMV infection in high-risk pregnant women.

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