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Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains the leading cause of death in developed countries. Although reperfusion of coronary arteries reduces mortality, it is associated with tissue injury. Endothelial P-selectin-mediated infiltration of neutrophils plays a key role in reperfusion injury. However, the mechanism of the P-selectin induction is not known. Here we show that infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion was significantly smaller in mice lacking guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A), a natriuretic peptide receptor. The decrease was accompanied by decreases in neutrophil infiltration in coronary endothelial P-selectin expression. Pretreatment with HS-142-1, a GC-A antagonist, also decreased infarct size and P-selectin induction in wild-type mice. In cultured endothelial cells, activation of GC-A augmented H2O2-induced P-selectin expression. Furthermore, ischemia/reperfusion-induced activation of NF-κB, a transcription factor that is known to promote P-selectin expression, is suppressed in GC-A-deficient mice. These results suggest that inhibition of GC-A alleviates ischemia/reperfusion injury through suppression of NF-κB-mediated P-selectin induction. This novel, GC-A-mediated mechanism of ischemia/reperfusion injury may provide the basis for applying GC-A blockade in the clinical treatment of reperfusion injury.