GM-CSF action in the CNS decreases food intake and body weight

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Many proinflammatory cytokines, such as leptin, play key roles in dynamic regulation of energy expenditure and food intake. The present work tested a role for the proinflammatory cytokine GM-CSF. Central but not peripheral administration of GM-CSF to adult rats significantly decreased food intake and body weight for at least 48 hours. Similar results were observed following central administration of GM-CSF in mice. GM-CSF receptor immunoreactivity was found on neurons within the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. GM-CSF–deficient (GM−/−) mice weighed more and had significantly higher total body fat than wild-type (GM+/+) mice. Energy expenditure in GM−/− mice was decreased compared with that in GM+/+ mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that GM-CSF signaling in the CNS can regulate energy homeostasis.

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