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Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a member of the sirtuin family of proteins that promote longevity in many organisms. Increased expression of SIRT3 has been linked to an extended life span in humans. Here, we have shown that Sirt3 protects the mouse heart by blocking the cardiac hypertrophic response. Although Sirt3-deficient mice appeared to have normal activity, they showed signs of cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis at 8 weeks of age. Application of hypertrophic stimuli to these mice produced a severe cardiac hypertrophic response, whereas Sirt3-expressing Tg mice were protected from similar stimuli. In primary cultures of cardiomyocytes, Sirt3 blocked cardiac hypertrophy by activating the forkhead box O3a–dependent (Foxo3a-dependent), antioxidant–encoding genes manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (Cat), thereby decreasing cellular levels of ROS. Reduced ROS levels suppressed Ras activation and downstream signaling through the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. This resulted in repressed activity of transcription factors, specifically GATA4 and NFAT, and translation factors, specifically eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (elf4E) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6P), which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. These results demonstrate that SIRT3 is an endogenous negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy, which protects hearts by suppressing cellular levels of ROS.