Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for HIV cure

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The apparent cure of an HIV-infected person following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an allogeneic donor homozygous for the ccr5Δ32 mutation has stimulated the search for strategies to eradicate HIV or to induce long-term remission without requiring ongoing antiretroviral therapy. A variety of approaches, including allogeneic HSCT from CCR5-deficient donors and autologous transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells, are currently under investigation. This Review covers the experience with HSCT in HIV infection to date and provides a survey of ongoing work in the field. The challenges of developing HSCT for HIV cure in the context of safe, effective, and convenient once-daily antiretroviral therapy are also discussed.

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