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The inappropriate activation of transcription factors, including STATs, is known to promote tumor initiation and progression. The most common mechanisms of misregulation lead to constitutive activation of WT STATs. However, the recent discovery of rare STAT mutations in hematopoietic malignancies suggests that STAT mutants may be oncogenic. In this issue of the JCI, Pham et al. use a transgenic mouse model to demonstrate that STAT5BN642H is sufficient for the development of T cell neoplasia. This study, along with other studies of constitutively active STAT mutants, provides insight into the pathogenesis and treatment of STAT5-driven cancer.