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The aim of this study was to explore the positive predictive value and negative predictive value of FDG PET/CT. The prognostic impact of tumor burden of bone marrow infiltrates was diagnosed by FDG PET/CT at initial presentation.This retrospective study enrolled 140 pediatric patients with pathologically proven lymphoma (113 Hodgkin disease and 27 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma). All patients had pretherapy FDG PET/CT. Bone marrow biopsy (BMB), clinical, radiological, and follow-up data were also collected. The skeleton was divided into 8 segments, and a 5-point scoring system was used for assessment of BM infiltration burden.Among the 140 lymphoma patients, FDG PET/CT revealed positive BM involvement in 41 patients; 2 of them were false-positive with negative BMB and regional MRI results. Positive predictive value was 95.1% for PET/CT compared with 100% with BMB. All patients diagnosed with positive BMI by BMB were detected by FDG PET/CT. On the contrary, BMB missed 25 patients (17.9%) with statistically significant difference. Negative predictive value was 100% for PET/CT compared with 80.2% for BMB (P < 0.05). FDG PET/CT upstaged 17.9% of the enrolled patients. Bone marrow involvement based on the 5-point scoring system was assessed. No significant difference was demonstrated in therapy outcome between patient with focal BMI (score 2) and extensive BMI (score 5; P = 0.06).FDG PET/CT has optimum negative predictive value compared with BMB in detection of bone marrow infiltrations in pediatric lymphoma with upstaging cases missed with BMB. Prognostic impact of BMI based on the 5-point scoring system reveals that the main influence is presence or absence of BMI rather than its tumor burden.