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The study aimed to determine bio-psycho-social risk factors for preterm birth in a sample of Turkish women without chronic illnesses and evaluate their anxiety and depression in early postpartum period.Preterm birth is a devastating event with long-term health and social implications. Studies have identified several risk factors; however, the contribution of these causes differs by ethnic groups.This case-control study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Istanbul over one year. In total, 149 preterm mothers were included in the case group and 150 term mothers who delivered in the same day with a case group woman were included in the control group. Chronic illnesses and anomalies were excluded.Data were gathered using a form that addressed risk factors for preterm birth. Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered within 24-72 hours after birth.Logistic regression analysis revealed that partner's lower education (≤8 years), history of preterm birth, antenatal hospitalisation, genitourinary infection and irregular prenatal care were significant risk factors. Perceived social support from family and friends were significantly lower in preterm group. Preterm mothers experienced significantly more anxiety and depressive symptoms in early postpartum.Many of the socio-economical and obstetric causes of preterm births were similar to other countries with higher preterm birth rates. Preterm births were associated with lower social support along with more anxiety and depressive symptoms in early postpartum.Women who have established risk factors can be targeted for more intensive antenatal care for the prevention of preterm birth. Increased maternal anxiety and depression reveal the necessity of emotional support immediately after birth.