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This article presents a comparative study of ibuprofen materials in their solid state. Ibuprofen crystallizes into two different structures for the S(+) enantiomer (dexibuprofen) and racemic ibuprofen. The crystal structure of ibuprofen, its optical absorption and photoluminescence, and the thermodynamic results (melting point and heat of fusion) are discussed. From these physicochemical properties, the authors conclude that dexibuprofen, which is the most active species pharmaceutically, and racemic ibuprofen are inherently different solid-state materials.