|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of tilidine and its metabolites during the dialysis procedure and in the dialysis-free interval. Tilidine is a prodrug that is metabolized presystemically into the active metabolite nortilidine. Nortilidine is degraded thereafter to bisnortilidine and several polar metabolites. Nine patients with a creatinine clearance < 5 ml/min were treated in a crossover design with single oral doses of 1.5 mg/kg on the day of dialysis (dialysis performed from 3 to 6 hours after drug administration) and on a day in the dialysis-free interval. Blood samples were taken frequently and analyzed for tilidine, nortilidine, and bisnortilidine. Drug and metabolite concentrations were also measured in aliquots of dialysate collected during dialysis. Only negligible amounts of tilidine, nortilidine, and bisnortilidine (about 0.9% of the dose) were recovered from the dialysate. The pharmacokinetics of nortilidine and its inactive metabolite bisnortilidine was not affected by dialysis. The presystemic apparent clearance of the prodrug tilidine was decreased significantly during the dialysis-free interval. A significant decrease of the rate of elimination and an increase of the AUC of bisnortilidine were observed if these parameters were compared with data obtained from healthy volunteers. The plasma concentrations of nortilidine were comparable in patients and normal volunteers. Thus, a reduction of the dose of tilidine in patients with severely impaired kidney function seems not to be required. Tilidine and its metabolites cannot be removed from the body by dialysis.