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Because there is a possibility that cannabis or cannabis-like molecules might be used as treatments for certain conditions in the future, it becomes important to consider the possible adverse effects of these compounds. In this paper, the authors review the evidence for persisting effects of nonacute cannabis use on the central nervous system, as reflected by alteration in neuropsychological performance. From the 40 articles that met criteria for inclusion in this review, the authors could not detect consistent evidence for persisting neuropsychological deficits in cannabis users; however, 22 of the 40 studies reported at least some subtle impairments. The inability to reach a firm conclusion results largely from methodological limitations inherent in most studies. These are considered in detail to inform future studies on (nonacute) consequences of cannabis consumption on cognitive abilities.