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Vincristine sulfate liposomes injection (VSLI) is a liposomal formulation of vincristine encapsulated in sphingosomes composed of sphinogomyelin and cholesterol (58/42; mol/mol). The pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of VSLI were evaluated in 12 patients with metastatic melanoma after single-dose (2.0 mg/m2 every 2 weeks = 1 cycle) and multiple-dose (cycle 3, pharmacokinetics only) administrations (intravenous infusion over 1 hour). After VSLI infusion, total (released and encapsulated) vincristine concentrations in plasma remained relatively constant for 3 to 12 hours and thereafter declined, with interpatient variability seen in the rate of decline resulting in monoexponential or biexponential profiles. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity of total vincristine in plasma ranged from 4933 to 40495 hng/mL and total clearance ranged from 131 to 445 mL/h. The volume of distribution at steady state was 2650 ± 731 mL, indicating VSLI was mainly confined within the plasma. The released vincristine concentrations in plasma were below the level of quantitation in 95% of samples. The pharmacokinetic parameters were similar between cycles 1 and 3, and trough plasma levels of total vincristine were below the level of quantitation of 1 ng/mL. Approximately 8% of the injected dose was excreted in the urine as unchanged vincristine (7%) or N-desformylvincristine (0.8%). Overall, VSLI exhibited a longer circulation half-life and higher area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared to conventional vincristine, whereas its route of elimination remained unchanged.