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The effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) or grapefruit juice (GFJ) on CYP3A activity was studied in vitro and in healthy human volunteers. In human liver microsomes, the mean 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for PJ and GFJ versus CYP3A (triazolam α-hydroxylation) were 0.61% and 0.55%, (v/v) respectively, without preincubation of inhibitor with microsomes. After preincubation, the IC50 for Pf increased to 0.97% (P < .05), whereas theIC50for GFJ decreased to 0.41% (P < .05), suggesting mechanism-based inhibition by GFJ but not PJ. Pretreatment of volunteer subjects (n = 13) with PJ (8 oz) did not alter the elimination half-life, volume of distribution, or clearance of intravenous midazolam (2 mg). Administration of PJ also did not affect Cmax, total area under the curve (AUC), or clearance of oral midazolam (6 mg). However, GFJ (8 oz) increased midazolam Cmax and A UC by a factor of 1.3 and 1.5, respectively, and reduced oral clearance to 72% of control values. Thus, PJ does not alter clearance of intravenous or oral midazolam, whereas GFJ impairs clearance and elevates plasma levels of oral midazolam.