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The goal of this study was to determine the effect of CYP2B6 genetic variation on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of efavirenz (600 mg/d) in TB/HIV co-infected patients receiving concomitant rifampin, a potent CYP inducer. In the 26 patients studied, CYP2B6 c.516GG, GT, and TT genotype frequencies were 0.27, 0.50, and 0.23, respectively. Mean plasma efavirenz area under the curve was significantly higher in patients with CYP2B6 c.516TT than in those with GT (107 vs 27.6 μg·h/mL, P < .0001) or GG genotype (107 vs 23.0 μg·h/mL, P < .0001). Apparent oral clearance (CL/F) was significantly lower in patients with CYP2B6 c.516TT than in those with GT genotype (2.1 vs 8.4 mL/min/kg, P < 0.0001) and GG genotype (2.1 vs 9.9 mL/min/kg, P < .0001). No differences in efavirenz exposure or CL/F existed between patients with CYP2B6 c.516GT and GG genotypes. Our results indicate that CYP2B6 c.516TT genotype can be used to identify efavirenz poor metabolizers in patients co-treated with rifampin.