Microdose Pharmacokinetics of IDX899 and IDX989, Candidate HIV-1 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Following Oral and Intravenous Administration in Healthy Male Subjects

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IDX899 and IDX989 are new non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) that exhibit potent inhibition of HIV-1 replication, including NNRTI-resistant mutants. This microdose study investigates the pharmacokinetics and determined oral bioavailability. For each compound, 4 healthy male subjects are randomized to receive via a crossover design a single 100-μg oral and intravenous dose together with 100 nCi of [14C]-labeled drug. Plasma and urine samples are obtained over a period of 168 hours postdose and analyzed for total, unchanged drug and major metabolites using an accelerator mass spectrometry method. Based on total radioactivity, oral absorption is near complete. For the parent drug, mean absolute bioavailability is 61% and 65% for IDX899 and IDX989, respectively. Both compounds are extensively metabolized especially after oral dosing. Observed terminal phase half-lives after oral and intravenous doses range from 4 to 10 hours and are comparable for the 2 compounds. Urine excretion of radioactivity for both compounds is less than 10%. These data show for the first time that IDX899 and IDX989 possess favorable pharmacokinetic properties in humans, including high mean absolute bioavailability and long half-life. IDX899 has been selected based on these initial pharmacokinetic assessments and other criteria as the candidate for further clinical development.

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