Pharmacokinetics of Levodopa/Carbidopa Delivered From Gastric-Retentive Extended-Release Formulations in Patients With Parkinson's Disease

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The investigators conducted a single-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) study of levodopa/carbidopa delivered from novel gastric-retentive extended-release (ER) tablets versus a comparator ER tablet (M-ER) in patients with Parkinson's disease. Two levodopa/carbidopa (200 mg/50 mg) gastric-retentive ER formulations (4 hours and 6 hours) and M-ER were administered orally with food. Blood samples were collected for up to 24 hours post dose to determine levodopa and carbidopa concentrations. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring adverse events and measuring vital signs. PK modeling was conducted to estimate the release characteristics for future gastric-retentive ER formulations to achieve a less fluctuating plasma concentration profiles. Compared with M-ER, both gastric-retentive ER formulations exhibited a longer time to reach a lower maximal plasma concentration for levodopa and carbidopa. The 4-hour formulation demonstrated a similar area under the concentration-time curve compared with M-ER, whereas the 6-hour formulation demonstrated a lower area under the concentrationtime curve. All formulations were well tolerated. Modeling suggests that a gastric-retentive ER formulation with a longer release duration administered twice daily may achieve a less fluctuating levodopa concentration profile than M-ER administered 3 times daily. This study demonstrates that gastric-retentive ER dosage forms may reduce dose frequency while minimizing the plasma peak-to-trough fluctuation and consequently reduce motor fluctuation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

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