Design Features of Drug–Drug Interaction Trials Between Antivirals and Oral Contraceptives

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The aim of this work was to explore the major design features of drug–drug interaction trials between antiviral medications (AVs) and oral contraceptives (OCs). Information on these trials (n = 27) was collected from approved drug labels and clinical pharmacology reviews conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The primary objective of all trials was to evaluate changes in OC exposure following the coadministration of AVs. In addition, an evaluation of potential pharmacodynamic interaction was performed in 10 of these trials. Twenty-two trials were open label with a fixed-sequence design, and 5 trials used a double-blind crossover design. The trials were conducted using one, two, or three 28-day ovulatory cycles in 10, 8, and 9 trials, respectively. Only 1 trial enrolled HIV-infected women. The median number of women in a trial was 20 (range, 12 to 52). Norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol (EE) combination was the most commonly used OC (n = 16, 59%) followed by norgestimate/EE (n = 9, 33%). Labeling recommendations were based on exposure changes in 25 cases and on safety observations in the trial in 2 cases. In conclusion, a wide variety of trial designs was used, and there is no preferred design. The answer to the exposure question can be achieved using multiple designs.

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