Treatment Predictors of Extrapyramidal Side Effects in Patients With Tardive Dyskinesia: Results From Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study 394


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Abstract

Predictors for the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD) have been studied extensively over the years, yet there are few studies of predictors of the course of TD after it has developed. Moreover, few studies have examined predictors of the course of other extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) in patients maintained on neuroleptics. The purpose of this study was to determine which modifiable variables are important in the prediction of EPS in patients with persistent TD over a period of as long as 2 years. One hundred fifty-eight patients enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study 394 were included in this study. A linear mixed-effects (LME) analysis to estimate the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale score (for TD severity), Simpson-Angus Scale (for parkinsonism severity), and Barnes Akathisia Scale at any given time after intake assessment was performed. The severity of each of the TD and EPS outcomes at any given visit was predicted by their respective baseline severity scores. Additional predictors of a favorable course of TD included lower doses of antipsychotic medications and use of anticholinergic medications. Other predictors of a favorable course of EPS included younger age and the use of atypical antipsychotic medication (for rigidity) and the use of anticholinergic medication (for tremor). These findings indicate that clinician-modifiable factors related to medication usage can influence the outcome of TD and EPS in patients with persistent TD.

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