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This prospective study sought to compare the acute effects of haloperidol, amisulpride, and quetiapine on serum markers of bone formation and resorption in relatively young patients with minimal previous exposure to antipsychotic drugs.Patients included in the study were randomly assigned to receive haloperidol, amisulpride, or quetiapine monotherapy in an open-label manner. Serum osteocalcin (OC, a marker of bone formation), C-terminal peptide of type I collagen (CTX, a marker of bone resorption), prolactin (PRL), estradiol, and testosterone were measured in 70 patients at baseline and after 4 weeks of antipsychotic treatment.A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in CTX levels and in the OC to CTX ratio between treatment groups (F = 4.481, P < 0.05; F = 8.114, P < 0.01). After 4 weeks of treatment, only the amisulpride group had significantly increased CTX levels and decreased OC/CTX. In addition, an obvious increase in PRL level and a reduction of sex hormone secretion after amisulpride treatment were found. No significant changes in bone turnover were observed in the haloperidol or quetiapine groups. Notably, a positive correlation between the CTX change to the change in PRL after treatment (r = 0.255, P < 0.05) was observed.The PRL-raising antipsychotic drug amisulpride influenced bone turnover balance very early in the course of treatment, which may require long-term monitoring of bone metabolism. Bone resorption marker changes induced by acute antipsychotic drug treatment are likely related to increased PRL levels.