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Neurologic disorders have the potential to impair breathing during sleep through several mechanisms including disordered respiratory control, respiratory muscle weakness or failure, and upper airway obstruction. Sleep-disordered breathing resulting from these disorders may take the form of periodic central or obstructive apneas or hypopneas or sustained hypoventilation; all forms generally worsen during rapid eye movement sleep. Clinical manifestations commonly include nocturnal sleep disturbances such as insomnia and snoring and daytime symptoms such as hypersomnolence and cognitive impairment. Treatment depends on the specific pattern of respiratory impairment during sleep and may include ventilatory support modalities, nasal continuous positive airway pressure, or various pharmacologic maneuvers.