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Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) refers to a histologic pattern of interstitial pneumonia occurring in various clinical contexts. Although relatively nonspecific, this pattern of interstitial pneumonia is distinctive in that it lacks characteristics of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Most patients with biopsy diagnoses of NSIP have clinical features suggestive of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In this latter context, NSIP is associated with a significantly better prognosis than UIP. Indeed, NSIP likely accounts for many historical reports of “corticosteroid-responsive IPF” and should be distinguished from UIP.