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We report an adult liver transplant recipient with parvovirus B19 infection, presenting as chronic transfusion-dependent anemia ensuing 1 month post-transplantation. Both serum and bone marrow cells were positive for parvovirus B19 DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction. The bone marrow biopsy revealed erythroid hypoplasia with a selective decrease of nucleated red cell precursors, and giant pronormoblasts with prominent intranuclear inclusions, characteristic of parvovirus B19 infection. Anemia and viremia resolved shortly after administration of immunoglobulin, suggesting a therapeutic role. This case and several similar ones in the literature provide justification for a controlled clinical trial of immunoglobulin for parvovirus-induced anemia in transplant recipients.